How To Interpret Your Bone Density Scan Results

Understanding your bone health is crucial, and one of the most reliable methods to assess it is through a DEXA scan. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into how to interpret DEXA scan results, what is BMD in DEXA scan, what constitutes a good DEXA scan score, and how accurate DEXA scans are for diagnosing osteoporosis.

Understanding DEXA Scan Results

A Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scan is a test that measures bone mineral density (BMD). It’s a quick, non-invasive procedure that provides crucial information about your bone health. But what do these results mean?

What is BMD in DEXA Scan?

BMD stands for Bone Mineral Density, and it is a measurement of the amount of minerals (mainly calcium) in your bones. The DEXA scan results provide a numerical value for your BMD, which is crucial in assessing bone strength and the risk of fractures.

How to Interpret DEXA Scan Results

DEXA scan results are typically reported in two numbers: T-score and Z-score.

  • T-score: This compares your bone density with that of a healthy young adult of the same sex. A T-score of -1.0 or above is considered normal. A score between -1.0 and -2.5 indicates low bone mass (osteopenia), and a score of -2.5 or lower suggests osteoporosis.
  • Z-score: This number compares your bone density with what’s typically expected for someone of your age, sex, and size. A Z-score lower than -2.0 could suggest that something other than aging is causing abnormal bone loss.

What is a Good DEXA Scan Score?

A good DEXA scan score is one that falls within the normal range. This means a T-score at -1.0 or higher. It indicates that your bones are healthy and strong, with a lower risk of fractures.

DEXA Scan Results and Treatment

If your DEXA scan results indicate osteopenia or osteoporosis, your healthcare provider will discuss treatment options with you. These may include lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and possibly medication to strengthen your bones.

Lifestyle Modifications

A diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, regular weight-bearing exercise, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol can help improve bone density.


Several medications can help prevent bone loss and increase bone strength. These include bisphosphonates, hormone-related therapy, and others.

Beyond the Numbers: Understanding the Implications of Your DEXA Scan

While the T-score and Z-score provide a snapshot of your bone health, interpreting these numbers in the context of your overall health is crucial. For instance, a slightly low bone density in a young, healthy individual may not be as concerning as the same score in an older adult with risk factors for fractures.

Risk Factors for Osteoporosis

Several factors can increase your risk of osteoporosis, including:

  • Age: The risk increases as you get older.
  • Gender: Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis.
  • Family history: A family history of osteoporosis can increase your risk.
  • Body frame size: Individuals with smaller body frames tend to have a higher risk.

Understanding these factors can help you and your healthcare provider make more informed decisions about your bone health.

DEXA Scan Results and Treatment: A Comprehensive Approach

If your DEXA scan results indicate osteopenia or osteoporosis, it’s important to consider a comprehensive treatment approach. This may include:

Nutritional Strategies

  • Calcium and Vitamin D: These are essential for bone health. Your doctor may recommend supplements if you’re not getting enough from your diet.
  • Protein: Adequate protein intake is also important for bone health.
  • Overall Diet: A balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains supports overall health and bone density.

Physical Activity

  • Weight-Bearing Exercises: Activities like walking, jogging, and dancing can help strengthen bones.
  • Strength Training: Lifting weights can improve bone density and overall strength.
  • Balance and Flexibility Exercises: These can reduce the risk of falls, which is crucial for individuals with osteoporosis.


In addition to lifestyle changes, various medications can be prescribed to treat osteoporosis, depending on the severity of the condition and individual health factors.

How Accurate is DEXA Scans for Osteoporosis?

DEXA scans are the gold standard for diagnosing osteoporosis, but it’s important to understand their limitations. Factors like your age, sex, and even the machine used can influence the results. Therefore, a DEXA scan is just one part of a comprehensive osteoporosis diagnosis.

The Role of Follow-Up Scans

Regular follow-up DEXA scans are often recommended to monitor bone density changes over time. This can help assess the effectiveness of treatment and make necessary adjustments.


Understanding your DEXA scan results is a critical step in managing and improving your bone health. Remember, these results are not just numbers but a window into your overall bone health that, when interpreted correctly, can guide effective treatment and lifestyle strategies.

Final Thoughts

Bone health is a vital aspect of overall well-being, especially as we age. Regular DEXA scans, a healthy lifestyle, and appropriate medical interventions can help maintain strong bones and reduce the risk of osteoporosis and fractures.


Can I improve my bone density after a poor DEXA scan result?

A: Yes, through lifestyle changes and, if necessary, medication, you can improve your bone density even after receiving a poor DEXA scan result.

How often should I get a DEXA scan?

The frequency of DEXA scans should be based on your initial results and overall health risk factors. Your healthcare provider will recommend a suitable schedule.

Is the DEXA scan painful?

No, the DEXA scan is a painless and non-invasive procedure.

Can children have a DEXA scan?

Yes, in certain medical conditions, children may require a DEXA scan to assess their bone health.

Contact Us